|Downtime form:||A-1a Doctor/Provider Orders - Pathology Core and Specialty Care Nursery|
|Red top tube 5 mL (Clot Activator)|
Males --------------------------- Albumin 4.2 - 5.2 g/dl Alpha1 0.3 - 0.5 g/dl Alpha2 0.3 - 0.6 g/dl Beta1 No range Beta2 No range Beta-total 0.6 - 1.0 g/dl Gamma 0.5 - 1.3 g/dl Females --------------------------- Albumin 3.7 - 5.0 g/dl Alpha1 0.3 - 0.5 g/dl Alpha2 0.4 - 0.6 g/dl Beta1 No range Beta2 No range Beta-total 0.6 - 0.9 g/dl Gamma 0.5 - 1.3 g/dl
The table below shows the proteins that predominantly make up the fractions of electrophoresis:
Fraction Protein Major or minor protein visible by electrophoresis Albumin Albumin Major Alpha-1 Alpha-1 antitrypsin Major Alpha-1 lipoprotein Minor Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein Minor Alpha-2 Alpha-2 macroglobulin Major Haptoglobin Major Ceruloplasmin Minor Fibronectin Minor Beta-1 Transferrin Major Beta-2 C3 Major C4 Minor Beta-lipoprotein Minor Beta-2 / Fibrinogen Major Beta-gamma IgA Major* IgM Major* Gamma Most immunoglobulins Major C-reactive protein Minor *IgA and IgM are normally not very visible in individuals without a plasma cell dyscrasia by electrophoresis, but are detectable when present as M-proteins. Polyclonal IgA can be seen in cirrhosis. Radiocontrast dyes used in imaging can produce small peaks by capillary electrophoresis. Iohexol and iopamidol show up in the alpha-2 region. It is recommended to delay electrophoresis, if possible, for several days after radiocontrast dye administration. Gelatin-based plasma substitutes can produce polyclonal-like increases in beta-gamma and gamma regions. Piperacillin-tazobactam can produce a small peak in the beta-1 region.