Publications of Our Laboratory


Copyright notice: The downloadable publications on this website are presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author’s copyright. These works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

Howard III, M. A., Utz, M., Brennan, T. J., Dalm, B. D., Viljoen, S., Jeffery, N. D., and Gillies, G. T., "Intradural Approach to Selective Stimulation in the Spinal Cord for Treatment of Intractable Pain: Design Principles and Wireless Protocol," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110 (2011), pp. 044702-1 – 044702-12.PDF iconPDF file

Our first publication, which describes the problem of intractable pain, introduces the HSCMS device, and explains its potential advantages over existing therapies.

Howard III, M. A., Utz, M., Brennan, T. J., Dalm, B. D., Viljoen, S., Kanwal, J. K., and Gillies, G. T., "Biophysical Attributes of an in vitro Spinal Cord Surrogate for Use in Developing an Intradural Neuromodulation System," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110 (2011), pp. 074701-1 – 074701-5.PDF iconPDF file

Describes a novel and robust substitute material for actual spinal cord, which can be used to test many aspects of HSCMS performance.

Wilson, S., Howard III, M. A., Rossen, J. D., Brennan, T. J., Dalm, B. D., Dahdaleh, N. S., Utz, M., and Gillies, G. T., "Pulsatile Spinal Cord Surrogate for Intradural Neuromodulation Studies," Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 36 (2012), pp. 22-25.PDF iconPDF file

Presents an improved version of our surrogate spinal cord device, which mimics the response of the real human spinal cord to each individual heartbeat.

Oya, H., Reddy, C.G., Dahdaleh, N.S., Wilson, S., Howard III, M. A., Jeffery, N. D., Utz, M., and Gillies, G. T., "Applier Tool for Intradural Spinal Cord Implants, Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 36 (2012), pp. 169-173.PDF iconPDF file

Describes the first new neurosurgical tool designed especially for the delicate task of placing the HSCMS directly onto the surface of the spinal cord.

Oya, H., Howard III, M. A., Shurig, R., and Gillies, G. T., "Spinal Canal Surrogate for Testing Intradural Implants," Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 36 (2012), pp. 407-410. PDF iconPDF file

Introduces an exact-scale model of the structures composing the human spinal canal, which can be used to evaluate advanced HSCMS designs.

Flouty, O. E., Oya, H., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., Jeffery, N. D., Brennan, T. J., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Utz, M., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "A New Device Concept for Directly Modulating Spinal Cord Pathways: Initial in vivo Experimental Results," Physiological Measurement, Vol. 33 (2012) pp. 2003-2015.PDF iconPDF file

Shows how the HSCMS can be used to control brain response to pain through direct stimulation of the spinal cord surface.

Gibson-Corley, K. N., Oya, H., Flouty, O., Fredericks, D. C., Jeffery, N. D., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. H., "Ovine Tests of a Novel Spinal Cord Neuromodulator and Dentate Ligament Fixation Method," Vol. 25 (2012), pp. 366-374.PDF iconPDF file

Summarizes the initial tests of the HSCMS in a living large animal model, and demonstrates the ability to secure it safely within the spinal canal.

Song, S.-H., Gillies, G. T., Howard III, M. A., Kuhnley, B., and Utz, M., "Power and Signal Transmission Protocol for a Contactless Subdural Spinal Cord Stimulation Device," Biomedical Microdevices, Vol. 15 (2013) pp. 27-36.PDF iconPDF file

Demonstrates the ability to wirelessly transfer power and stimulus control signals from outside the dural lining of the spinal cord directly to the HSCMS inside.

Oliynyk, M. S., Gillies, G. T., Oya, H., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., and Howard III, M. A., "Dynamic Loading Characteristics of an Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulator,"Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113 (2013), 026103 (3 pp).PDF iconPDF file

Presents the results of measurements showing that the pressures applied by the device on a surrogate spinal cord are safely at or below standard intrathecal pressure.

Flouty, O. E., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Reddy, C. G., Fredericks, D. C., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Jeffery, N. D. Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "Intracranial Somatosensory Responses with Direct Spinal Cord Stimulation in Anesthetized Sheep," PLOS ONE, Vol. 8 (2013) e56266 (11 pp).PDF iconPDF file

Provides the first detailed experimental comparison of standard versus direct spinal cord stimulation, confirming improved response to HSCMS in a large animal model.

Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Smittkamp, C., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "Optimization of Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulator Designs via Analysis of Thoracic Spine Imaging Data," Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, Vol. 33 (2013), pp. 193-198.PDF iconPDF file

Reports the findings of an MR imaging study of the diameter and radius of the spinal cord in a series of patients, thus providing mechanical design guidelines for the HSCMS.

Smittkamp, C. A., Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "MR-Based Measurement of Spinal Cord Motion during Flexion of the Spine: Implications for Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulator Systems," Proceedings of the ASNR 51st Annual Meeting (ASNR, San Diego, May 20-23, 2013), Paper No. O-524, pp. 290-291, http://www.asnr.org/sites/default/files/proceedings/2013.pdfPDF iconPDF file

Presents the preliminary results of MR imaging measurements of the axial movement of the spinal cord during flexion and extension of the back in a series of volunteers.

Oya, H., Safayi, S., Jeffery, N. D., Viljoen, S., Reddy, C. G., Dalm, B. D., Kanwal, J. K., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "Soft-Coupling Suspension System for an Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulator: Biophysical Performance Characteristics," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114 (2013) 164701 (7 pp).PDF iconPDF file

Provides the first interim results from our chronic ovine model of HSCMS implantation, showing that the small-gauge electrode wires do not fracture inside the body.

Viljoen, S., Oya, H., Reddy, C. G., Dalm, B. D., Shurig, R., Odden, K., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "Apparatus for Simulating Dynamic Interactions between the Spinal Cord and Soft-Coupled Intradural Implants," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 84 (2013) 114303 (7 pp).PDF iconPDF file

Presents the final results of MR imaging measurements of the axial movement of the spinal cord during flexion and extension of the back in a series of volunteers.

Viljoen, S., Smittkamp, C. A., Dalm, B. D., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., “MR-Based Measurement of Spinal Cord Motion During Flexion of the Spine: Implications for Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulator Systems,” Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 38 (2014), pp. 1-4. PDF iconPDF file

Presents the final results of MR imaging measurements of the axial movement of the spinal cord during flexion and extension of the back in a series of volunteers.

Gibson-Corley, K. N., Flouty, O. E., Oya, H., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "Post-Surgical Pathologies Associated with Intradural Electrical Stimulation in the Central Nervous System: Design Implications for a New Clinical Device," BioMed Research International, Vol. 2014 (2014), 989175 (10 pp).PDF iconPDF file

Describes the early history of intradural spinal cord stimulation and documents the roughly 3,000 clinical cases done in the early 1970s, confirming its medical value.

Huang, Q., Oya, H., Flouty, O. E., Reddy, C. G., Howard III, M. A., Gillies, G. T., and Utz, M., "Comparison of Spinal Cord Stimulation Profiles from Intradural and Extradural Electrode Arrangements by Finite Element Modeling, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, Vol 52 (2014) pp. 531-538.PDF iconPDF file

A careful computational analysis that shows the significant advantages of intradural spinal cord stimulation as compared with epidural stimulation.

Safayi, S., Jeffery, N. D., Fredericks, D. C., Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "Biochemical Performance of an Ovine Model of Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulation," Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 28 (2014), pp. 269 – 273.PDF iconPDF file

Presents the results of video measurements of the neck motions of sheep implanted with an I-Patch, showing that this model subjects the device to large accelerations.

Grosland, N. M., Gillies, G. T., Shurig, R., Stoner, K., Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Oya, H., Fredericks, D. C., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., and Howard III, M. A., "Finite-Element Study of the Performance Characteristics of an Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulator," ASME Journal of Medical Devices, submitted for publication.

Provides a computational model for the dynamics of the I-Patch device, and compares its predicted performance against laboratory measurements for validation.

Dalm, B. G., Viljoen S., Gillies, G. T., Oya, H., and Howard III, M. A., "A Novel Dural Reconstruction Method Following Spinal Tumor Resection," World Neurosurgery, submitted for publication.

Case report of a surgical method for dural closure for a spinal cord tumor that can also be used for stabilization of the HSCMS within the laminectomy defect.

Oya, H., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Gillies, G. T., and Howard III, M. A., "Impedance Measurements at the Electrode-Pial Surface Interface in a Chronic Ovine Model of Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulation," Physiological Measurement, to be submitted for publication.

Presents the results of measurements of the electrode-tissue-electrode impedance for HSCMS prototypes implanted chronically (up to one year) in adult sheep.

Copyright notice: The downloadable publications on this website are presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author’s copyright. These works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.